Six of the seven wonders of the ancient world were described by Philon of Byzance in a manuscript entitled “Péri tôn hépta théamatôn” (About the seven wonders of the world). This manuscript including six layers only described six constructions. The seventh, the mausoleum of Halicarnassus, is only described in the introduction of the manuscript because the last layer disappeared.
However, the final list, also called the canonical list, describing the seven wonders of the ancient world has been adopted after the reign of Alexandre the Great according to fourteen lists from different authors. The selected monuments have to meet standards of beauty, size, and technical prowess.
- The Great Pyramid of Giza 2500 BC Approximate – Egyptians
- Hanging Gardens of Babylon 600 BC – Babylonians – Destroyed Earthquake
- Temple of Artemis at Ephesus 550 BC – Anatolians – Destroyed Fire 356 BC
- Statue of Zeus at Olympia 435 BC – Greeks – Destroyed Fire
- Mausoleum of Halicarnassus 315 BC – Hellenized Carians – Destroyed Earthquake
- Colossus of Rhodes 292-280 BC – Hellenistic Civilization – Destroyed 224 BC Earthquake
- Lighthouse of Alexandria 3rd Century BC – Hellenistic Civilization – Destroyed Earthquake
These monuments are located in Greece, northern Africa, and minor Asia. Their date of construction varies from 2800 BC for the Pyramid of Giza to 280 BC for the Lighthouse of Alexandria. Nowadays, the Pyramid of Giza is the only wonder who still exists. Excavations proved the existence of the other wonders, except the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.